Dr. Ashraf Yousef, MBBCH, MSc, MD, PhD (Russia), MRCPS (Glasgow)
February 21, 2021

Osteoporosis

It is a pathological condition that occurs due to a lack of bone density, in other words, a lack of bone mass, so the bone from the inside becomes porous, which leads to a defect in the composition of the bone and the ease of fracture.

 Bone is a living tissue that is constantly broken down and replaced.

Symptoms:

Usually no symptoms appear as a result of fragility but some signs such as:

Back pain as a result of a fracture of the vertebrae, 

short stature.

back bend.

Ease of bone fractures.

Causes:

Since the bones are in a state of continuous renewal, it varies according to age.

At a young age, bone building is faster than losing it, as this condition continues until the age of thirty, and with aging, the speed of construction decreases and the loss of bone mass increases.

The probability of developing osteoporosis partly depends on the amount of bone mass that was built during the youth period. Genetics also affect to some extent and differ according to each ethnic group.

The greater the upper limit of bone mass at the age of thirty, the less likely it is to develop osteoporosis with age.

Risk Factors:

 Gender: Women are more susceptible to physical structure and hormonal changes.

Age: the older you get, the greater the risk.

Race: White people of Asian descent are more vulnerable to vulnerability.

Family history: Genetics may have great effect.

Body structure size: Usually those with smaller body structures are more likely to develop a fragility.

The effect of hormones on the bone mass:

 Sexual hormones: Low testosterone in men and estrogen hormone in women leads to weak bones

Thyroid hormone disorder:

An overactive thyroid gland leads to the secretion of too much of the gland hormone, which leads to bone loss.

Disruption of the parathyroid and adrenal glands, leading to osteoporosis.

Anorexia and lack of calcium intake: In the long run, low calcium leads to a loss of appetite, and poor appetite and not eating healthy food increases the risk of osteoporosis.

Gastrointestinal surgeries:

Weight loss surgeries play an important role in the occurrence of bone fragility.

Cancer treatments, steroids, and others: These medicines lead to bone weakness.

Diseases associated with fragility:

Celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis. Multiple myeloma

Life style effect:

The likelihood of developing fragility increases when sitting continuously for a long time. Drinking alcohol, smoking, lack of activity, and lack of exercise such as walking, running, dancing, jumping, and weight lifting.

Complications of osteoporosis:

Fractures of the vertebrae and fracture of the hip bone are the most frequent.

protection:

Good nutrition. use a fresh, varied and balanced diet.

 Maintain an adequate body weight.

Bone density examination for those over the age of fifty, especially women.

Maintain the normal levels of calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D.

 Exercising regularly. Doing the necessary analyzes periodically.

The diagnosis:

Bone densitometry.

treatment:

The use of various drugs aims to increase the bone buildup and reduce bone resorption.

It can lead to some side effects such as abdominal pain and nausea. Medicines that are taken intravenously can lead to fever, headache, and muscle pain for a period of three days.

 Bone is a living tissue that is constantly broken down and replaced.

Symptoms:

Usually no symptoms appear as a result of fragility but some signs such as:

Back pain as a result of a fracture of the vertebrae, 

short stature.

back bend.

Ease of bone fractures.

Causes:

Since the bones are in a state of continuous renewal, it varies according to age.

At a young age, bone building is faster than losing it, as this condition continues until the age of thirty, and with aging, the speed of construction decreases and the loss of bone mass increases.

The probability of developing osteoporosis partly depends on the amount of bone mass that was built during the youth period. Genetics also affect to some extent and differ according to each ethnic group.

The greater the upper limit of bone mass at the age of thirty, the less likely it is to develop osteoporosis with age.

Risk Factors:

 Gender: Women are more susceptible to physical structure and hormonal changes.

Age: the older you get, the greater the risk.

Race: White people of Asian descent are more vulnerable to vulnerability.

Family history: Genetics may have great effect.

Body structure size: Usually those with smaller body structures are more likely to develop a fragility.

The effect of hormones on the bone mass:

 Sexual hormones: Low testosterone in men and estrogen hormone in women leads to weak bones

Thyroid hormone disorder:

An overactive thyroid gland leads to the secretion of too much of the gland hormone, which leads to bone loss.

Disruption of the parathyroid and adrenal glands, leading to osteoporosis.

Anorexia and lack of calcium intake: In the long run, low calcium leads to a loss of appetite, and poor appetite and not eating healthy food increases the risk of osteoporosis.

Gastrointestinal surgeries:

Weight loss surgeries play an important role in the occurrence of bone fragility.

Cancer treatments, steroids, and others: These medicines lead to bone weakness.

Diseases associated with fragility:

Celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis. Multiple myeloma

Lifestyle effect:

The likelihood of developing fragility increases when sitting continuously for a long time. Drinking alcohol, smoking, lack of activity, and lack of exercise such as walking, running, dancing, jumping, and weight lifting.

Complications of osteoporosis:

Fractures of the vertebrae and fracture of the hip bone are the most frequent.

protection:

Good nutrition. use a fresh, varied and balanced diet.

 Maintain an adequate body weight.

Bone density examination for those over the age of fifty, especially women.

Maintain the normal levels of calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D.

 Exercising regularly. Doing the necessary analyzes periodically.

The diagnosis:

Bone densitometry.

Treatment:

The use of various drugs aims to increase the bone buildup and reduce bone resorption.

It can lead to some side effects such as abdominal pain and nausea. Medicines that are taken intravenously can lead to fever, headache, and muscle pain for a period of three days.

Authored by – Dr. Ashraf Yousef, MBBCH, MSc, MD, PhD (Russia), MRCPS (Glasgow)

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